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Concrete Floors and Moisture 2nd Ed.

Concrete Floors and Moisture 2nd Ed.

By Howard M. Kanare

Your guide to concrete and how moisture affects it. 

Price: $99.00
Product Code: EB119
Year: 2008
Binding:
Publisher: PCA


Table of Contents

  1. Introduction to Moisture Issues
    1. Brief History of Concrete Floors
    2. Recent Changes in Concrete Floor Construction and Floor Covering Materials
    3. Changes in Adhesive and Flooring
    4. Changes in Concrete Floor Construction Practices
    5. Moisture, pH, and Alkalies
    6. Mold and Mildew
  2. Sources of Moisture
    1. Natural Sources of Moisture
    2. Weather
    3. Standing Water
    4. Water Table and Capillary Rise
    5. Hydrostatic Pressure
    6. Osmosis
    7. Subslab Vapor
    8. Ambient (Indoor) Relative Humidity
    9. Dew Point
    10. Artificial Sources of Moisture
    11. Concrete Mix Water
    12. Curing Water
    13. Subslab Sources
    14. Spills
    15. Building Uses
    16. HVAC Operations
    17. Cleaning and Maintenance
  3. Examples of Flooring Moisture Problems
    1. Adhesive Degradation
    2. Coating Debonding
    3. Osmotic Blistering
    4. Alkali Attack
    5. Microbial Growth
    6. Wood Expansion
    7. Incompatible Patching Compounds
    8. Alkali Staining
    9. Sulfate Salt Deposition
    10. Dew Point Condensation (Sweating)
    11. Alkali-Aggregate Reactivity
    12. Expansive Contaminants
    13. Efflorescence
    14. Corrosion of Embedded Objects
    15. Lightweight Aggregate Concrete
    16. High Water Table
    17. Underlayment Expansion
    18. Poor Exterior Drainage
    19. Lack of Weather Protection
    20. Interior Plantings
  4. Cement and Concrete
    1. Components of Concrete
    2. Cement
    3. Aggregates
    4. Admixtures
    5. Supplementary Cementations Materials
    6. Hydration
    7. Curing
    8. Porosity
    9. Permeability
    10. Porosity, Water, and Moisture Distribution
  5. Drying of Concrete
    1. Concrete Moisture
    2. Moisture Movement Through Concrete Slabs
    3. Relative Humidity Changes During Drying
    4. Estimation of Drying Time
    5. Standard Drying Time
    6. Dimensional Correction Factor
    7. Correction Factor for One-Sided or Two-Sided Drying
    8. Correction for Temperature and Humidity
    9. Correction for Variation in Curing Conditions
    10. Application of the Correction Factors
    11. Water from the Adhesive
  6. Measuring Moisture in Concrete
    1. Introduction
    2. Qualitative Moisture Tests
    3. Plastic Sheet Test
    4. Mat Bond Test
    5. Electronic Instruments
    6. Electrical Resistance Test
    7. Electrical Impedance Test
    8. Nuclear Moisture Gauge
    9. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
    10. Quantitative Moisture Tests
    11. Gravimetric Moisture Content
    12. Moisture Vapor Emission Rate (MVER) (Calcium Chloride Kit Test)
    13. Relative Humidity Measurement
    14. Worldwide RH Standards
    15. Installing RH Probes
    16. Acceptable RH Levels
    17. RH Probe Calibration
    18. Powders or Crushed Concrete
    19. Accuracy and Precision of RH Measurements
    20. Early RH Measurements in PCA Laboratories
  7. Construction Practices to Avoid Moisture Problems
    1. Roles and Responsibilities of Parties
    2. Flooring and Adhesive Manufacturers
    3. Design Professional
    4. Landscape Designer
    5. General Contractor
    6. Concrete Subcontractor
    7. Independent Testing Firm
    8. Flooring Installer
    9. Floor Maintainer
    10. Owner
    11. Concrete Mix Designs for Floors
    12. Strength, Water-to-Cement Ratio, and Workability Requirements
    13. Materials Selection
    14. Lightweight Aggregates
    15. Quality Control Testing of Fresh Concrete
    16. Adding Water to Concrete at the Jobsite
    17. Vapor Retarders
    18. Background
    19. Specifications for Vapor Retarders
    20. Concrete Floors and the Sausage Connection
    21. Location of Vapor Retarder
    22. Integral Waterproofers vs. Vapor Retarders
    23. Installing Vapor Retarders
    24. Layout
    25. Penetrations
    26. Perimeter Walls
    27. Columns, Footings, and Grade Beams
    28. Wire Mesh, Cracks, and Joints
    29. Form Edges
    30. Reinforcing Steel and Dowels
    31. Finishing
    32. Controlling drying Shrinkage and Curling
  8. Architectural Details for Floor Construction
    1. Introduction
    2. Elements of a Moisture-Resistant Floor System
    3. Elements of a Capillary Break Systems
    4. Nonreinforced Concrete Slab on Ground
    5. Alternative Details for Waterstops Where Floor Slab Meets Exterior Walls
    6. Tilt-Up Wall With Pour Strip
    7. Post-Tensioned Slab-on-Grade
    8. Thickened-Edge Slab-on-Ground With Grade Beam at Exterior Wall
    9. Blockout at Concrete Column on Deep Footing
    10. Blockout at Steel Column on Shallow Footing or Pier
    11. Trenches for Slab Utilities
    12. Electrical Duct in Blockout Trench
    13. Below Grade Floor Slab Over Thick Hydraulic Slab
    14. Unbonded Screed Over Dampproofing Membrane
    15. Insulated Concrete Forms (ICF)
    16. Foundation Wall Insulation
    17. Precast Hollow-Core Concrete Plank Over Crawl Space
  9. Approaches to Investigation and Repair of Floor Moisture Problems
    1. Investigation
    2. Problem Definition
    3. Project History
    4. Field Investigation
    5. Laboratory Analyses and Tests
    6. Microscopy
    7. Chemical Analysis
    8. External Laboratory Analyses
    9. Report and Recommendations
    10. Repair Options
    11. Maintenance
    12. Less Moisture-Sensitive Flooring
    13. Drying
    14. Surface-Applied Vapor Reduction Treatments
    15. Sub-Slab Drying
    16. Prefabricated Membranes
    17. Remove and Replace
  10. Appendix
    1. Sources of Supplies
    2. Checklist for the Concrete Pre-Construction Conference
    3. References
    4. Standards Glossary
    5. Index